Wednesday, October 21, 2009

Pengenalan Kepada Rumusan

Assalamualaikum dan Selamat Sejahtera.

Selamat Berkenalan. Saya adalah UK Anti Virus Biotech Formula UK Anti Virus Biotech Formula, sejenis rumusan yang berupaya membantu mencegah A(H1N1)!!! Sebagai pemula, saya ingin memberikan sedikit penerangan mengenai rumusan yang terdapat dalam tubuh saya. Posting selanjutnya akan menerangkan lebih banyak lagi bahan-bahan didalam saya dan juga testimoni pesakit-pesakit yang telah menggunakan saya. Mohon maaf kerana posting ini saya tuliskan dalam bahasa Inggeris, Insya Allah akan saya alih bahasa dalam posting yang akan datang.

Interferon Alpha 2b-01

Interferons (IFNs) are natural cell-signaling proteins produced by the cells of the immune system of most vertebrates in response to challenges such as viruses, parasites and tumor cells. They belong to the large class of glycoproteins known as cytokines and are produced by a wide variety of cells in response to the presence of double-stranded RNA, a key indicator of viral infection. Interferons assist the immune response by inhibiting viral replication within host cells, activating natural killer cells and macrophages, increasing antigen presentation to T lymphocytes, and increasing the resistance of host cells to viral infection. There are 3 known classes of interferons; type I, type II and type III. All classes are very important in fighting viral infections. Their presence also accounts for some of the host symptoms to infections, such as sore muscles and fever.

All interferons share several common effects. They are antiviral agents and can fight tumors. These activities are co-ordinated by IFN-mediated activation of certain immune cells, such as macrophages and natural killer cells, and by enhancing cell surface expression of important immune molecules -- including major histocompatibility complex classes I and II, which display foreign (microbial) peptides for activation of T cells. Production of hundreds of other proteins that play a role in combating viruses, and known collectively as interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), is also induced by interferons.

As an infected cell dies from the cytolytic virus, thousands of viruses will infect nearby cells. However, the infected cell releases interferon and warns these other cells of the presence of the virus. These neighboring cells, in response, produce large amounts of an enzyme known as protein kinase R (PKR). If a virus infects a cell that has been “pre-warned” by interferon, the PKR begins transferring phosphate groups (phosphorylating) to a protein known as eIF-2, a eukaryotic translation initiation factor, which forms an inactive complex with another protein called eIF2B to reduce translation initiation and protein synthesis. This prevents both viral replication and normal cell ribosome function, potentially killing both the virus and susceptible host cells. Following PKR activation, another cellular enzyme, RNAse L is also induced. This enzyme destroys all RNA within the cells thereby further reducing protein synthesis of both viral and host genes.

Another function of interferon is to upregulate major histocompatibility complex molecules, MHC I and MHC II, and increase immunoproteasome activity. Higher MHC I expression increases presentation of viral peptides to cytotoxic T cells, while the immunoproteasome produces peptides compatible for loading onto the MHC I molecule, to increase killing of infected cells by T cells. Higher MHC II expression increases presentation of viral peptides to helper T cells, which release cytokines that signal to and co-ordinate the activity of other cells of the immune system.

Interferon can increase p53 activity in virus infected cells promoting cell death by apoptosis and limiting the ability of the virus to spread. The effect of IFN on p53 is also linked to its protective role against against certain cancers.

Monoclonal Antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are monospecific antibodies that are identical because they are produced by one type of immune cell that are all clones of a single parent cell. Given almost any substance, it is possible to create monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to that substance; they can then serve to detect or purify that substance. This has become an important tool in biochemistry, molecular biology and medicine. When used as medications, the non-proprietary drug name ends in -mab Monoclonal cells are defined as a group of cells produced from a single ancestral cell by repeated cellular replication. Thus they can be said to form a single "clone". The process of replication can occur in vivo, or may be stimulated in vitro for laboratory manipulations. The use of the term typically implies that there is some method to distinguish between the cells of the original population from which the single ancestral cell is derived, such as a random genetic alteration, which is inherited by the progeny.

The most common usages of this term are:

Monoclonal antibodies: A single hybridoma cell, which by chance includes the appropriate V(D)J recombination to produce the desired antibody, is cloned to produce a large population of identical cells. In informal laboratory jargon the monoclonal antibodies isolated from cell culture supernatants of these hybridoma clones (hybridoma "lines") are simply called "monoclonals".

Monoclonal neoplasms (tumors): A single aberrant cell which has undergone a oncogenic event unfortunately reproduces itself into a large cancerous mass.

Sehingga ketemu lagi, Selamat Sejahtera, semoga hidup anda lebih sihat dan ceria. Wassalam.

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